Soybean is a major industrial and food crops grown in every continent and in many states of Nigeria as a result of its nutritive, economic importance and diverse domestic usage. It is a major source of vegetable oil in the international market. Soybean has an average protein content of 40% and is more protein-rich than any of the common food crops. Soybean seeds also contain about 20% oil on a dry matter basis; the soybean oil is 85% unsaturated and cholesterol-free.
The growth in the poultry sector has increased the demand for soybean meal (derivative of soyabean) in Nigeria. Soybean is useful for soil fertility improvement and Striga control. The market for soybean in Nigeria is growing very fast with opportunities for improving the income of farmers especially considering that oil mills and feed mills process soybean.
Soybean may be presented as cream, green, black, brown and a mixture of these colours.
Cream soybean: Cream soybean is any soybeans that have cream seed coats, and which in cross-section, are cream or have a cream tinge, and may include not more than 10.0 percent of soybean of other colours.
Green Soybean: Green soybeans shall be any soybeans that have green seed coats, and which in cross-section, are green, and may include not more than 10.0 percent of soybeans of other colours.
Brown soybeans: Brown soybeans shall be any soybeans with brown seed coats, and may include not more than 10.0 percent of soybeans of other colours.
Black Soybeans: Black soybeans shall be any soybeans with black seed coats, and may include not more than 10.0 percent of soybeans of other colours.
Mixed Soybeans: Mixed Soybeans shall be any mixture of soybeans which does not meet the requirements of the colours of cream, green, brown or black soybeans
Uses of Soybean
- Source of food — soy-milk, soy-cheese, dadawa, infant weaning food,
- Source of an excellent vegetable oil,
- It improves soil fertility and controls the parasitic weed, Striga hermonthica,
- Soybean cake is an excellent livestock feed, especially for poultry,
- The haulms provide good feed for sheep and goats